Baidicheng Ancient City and Qutang Gorge
Baidi or Baidicheng (Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 白帝城; 8 km east of the present day Fengjie County seat in Chongqing municipality) is an ancient temple complex on a hill on the northern shore of the Yangtze River in China. The name literally means City of the White Emperor. It is said that the area was once surrounded with a white mist, giving it a rather mysterious yet serene look, much like what an emperor should be like. It has also been said that someone saw a white dragon, the symbol of the Emperor come out there, and the warlord Gongsun Shu thought this was a fortuitous sign, and declared himself Emperor of Chengja. He founded the city and called himself the White Emperor.
The temple is now an island due to the rise in water levels since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. Much of the old structures were submerged and new buildings have been built higher up. The island is linked to the north bank of the Yangtze by a bridge. It continues to be a tourist attraction with many cruise ships stopping at Fengjie to allow tourists to visit.
Baidi is also known as the City of Poems because so many poets, including the famous Li Bai, wrote about it (see: Departing from Baidi in the Morning). Some, like Du Fu, even resided there for a while. Baidicheng's coordinate is 31.045126 north, 109.545877 east.
Baidi was also where Liu Bei, first emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era, died.
In 2006, the Chinese government established Baidi city as a National Heritage site.
The Qutang Gorge (瞿塘峡) is the shortest and most spectacular of China's Three Gorges.
Immediately downstream of the ancient village Baidicheng (白帝城) the Yangtze River passes between the Chijia Mountain (赤甲山) on the north and the Baiyan Mountain (白盐山) on the south. The point where the river passes between these mountains is called the Kuimen Gate (夔门) and it is the entrance to the Qutang Gorge - the first of the three Yangtze gorges. The Qutang Gorge is only 8 kilometres (5 miles) long, but it is also the narrowest of the Three Gorges. The widest point measures only 150 metres (500 ft) wide. The mountains on either side reach as high as 1,200 metres (4,000 ft). This combination of narrow canyons among high mountains with several switchbacks in only 8 kilometres creates spectacular vistas, and the Qutang Gorge is often considered the most beautiful of all the Three Gorges.
The coordinate of Qutang Gorge is 31.033826 north, 109.540160 east. Administratively, the location is in Fengjie County of the Chongqing Municipality.
The Chalk Wall (粉壁墙) is a white cliff face on the southern bank of the Yangtze River at the entrance to the Qutang Gorge (Kuimen Gate). The Chalk Wall can be easily recognized by the numerous characters carved into the rock, many of which were done by famous Chinese calligraphers. Nearly 1,000 characters in all are carved into the rock wall, with the oldest dating to the Song Dynasty (960-1279). The wall has characters carved in many different styles of calligraphy and in various sizes. The largest characters are approximately 1.7 metres (6 ft) wide.
The Meng Liang Stairway
On the south side the river (Baiyan Mountain) there are a series of rectangular shaped holes carved into the cliff face. The holes are almost exactly 1 metre apart and 1 metre deep. The holes zig-zag up part of the cliff face in a Z-shape. These holes are known as the Meng Liang Stairway (孟良梯).
Legend has it that the holes were built by a Song Dynasty soldier named Meng Liang (孟良). Meng Liang served for a general named Yang Jiye who was buried at the top of the cliff. Meng Liang wanted to find the remains of General Yang and give him a proper burial back in his home town. During the night Meng Liang constructed the stairway. A monk at the top of the mountain saw him coming and crowed like a rooster. Meng Liang, thinking the morning had arrived, quickly abandoned his plan to avoid being caught.
Holes such as these are used as a walk-way several places in the Three Gorges region. Poles were inserted into the holes and then either a walkway could be constructed or a person could walk from pole to pole. Historians do not know why these particular holes were constructed, nor do they know why they only reach part of the way up the cliff face. Remains of city walls have been located at the top of the cliff, and some historians have theorized that the pathway might have been intended to enable a person to access the city from the river.
Another famous set of similar holes can be found near Wushan in the Little Three Gorges (小三峡) of the Daning River (大宁河). The local tourism agency in Wushan has placed poles in some of these holes so that touists can see how they were used in ancient times.
Hanging Monk Rock
On the cliff face near Meng Liang's Staircase there is a rock shaped like an upside down person. This is the Hanging Monk Rock (倒吊和尚). According to legend, when Meng Liang discovered that the monk had feigned a rooster call (see above), and frightened him off the mountain, he was so angry that he found the monk and hung him upside down from the cliff face.
Drinking Phoenix Spring
Along the cliff face near the Chalk Wall and Meng Liang's Stairway there are a number of caves. Dripping water from natural springs within the caves have created many stalactites. One particular stalactite is approximately 10 metres (33 ft) high, and it is shaped like a Phoenix displaying its tail feathers. Moss and bamboo growing next to the formation look like feathers on a bird. Water still drips from the head of the stalactite bird, and hence the Chinese have dubbed it the Drinking Phoenix Spring (凤凰泉). The formation is extremely difficult to see from the river, but there is a pathway that allows direct access to the caves.
The Ancient Pathway (古栈道)
These narrow footpaths were built starting in Western Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) and continued to be maintained and improved up until the middle of the 20th century. The original purpose was to provide a foot path for human haulers to pull boats upstream. Thus they were always alongside cliffs next to the river. Since the earliest days, boats going downstream used oars just to get steerage way. Going upstream, human powered oars were no match to the rapid current. Thus gangs of humans, harnessed to a tow rope, hauled the boats upstream. These haulers needed a path along the steep cliffs to walk on. Thus The Ancient Pathways were built. Even today haulers can be seen as in 天山网. Over the years, these paths were expanded and improved. In addition to paths for haulers, paths were built for hauling goods up mountains. These higher paths would survive the flooding after the Three Gorges Dam is complete.
Although the Qutang Gorge is the furthest upstream of all the affected gorges, the impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the Qutang Gorge has been especially large. Many of the most famous and historically significant sites in the Qutang Gorge are located closer to the water level. In fact, even prior to the dam construction the water level would come close to many sites during the rainy season. The water has now effectively covered many of the most impressive and notable sites in the Gorge including the Ancient Pathway, Meng Liang's Staircase, the Chalk Wall, and the cave within the Bellows Gorge.
The Qutang Gorge has also been known as the Kuixia Gorge (夔峡).
Early western travellers and missionaries at times also mistakenly referred to this gorge as the Bellows Gorge, however this name was meant by the Chinese to refer only to a specific part within the Qutang Gorge (see above).